Transurethral Resection of Bladder Tumor: Novel Techniques in a New Era

Main Article Content

Shengkun Sun
Hengen Wang
Xu Zhang
Guangfu Chen

Keywords

transurethral resection of bladder tumor, bladder cancer, super TURBT, partial cystectomy

Abstract

Transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) serves both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in the management of bladder cancer. Attaining a high-quality TURBT is not always guaranteed due to various factors. En-bloc resection of bladder tumors (ERBT) holds promise to be a primary technique for removing bladder tumors in most non-muscle invasive bladder cancers. However, so far, no conclusive evidence indicates the superiority of any specific energy source used for ERBT. While laser energy can prevent the activation of obturator nerve reflex during ERBT, it poses challenges such as thermal injury and imprecise controllability. Needle-shaped electrodes offer high-level precision and controllability, without causing tissue deterioration or vaporization. The primary limitation of ERBT at present is the extraction/harvesting of large en-bloc specimens. Effective tools have been developed to overcome this limitation. Enhanced cystoscopy improves the detection of flat and small bladder tumors, allowing for better removal of cancerous tissues and significantly reducing recurrence rates. Advances in medical technology have brought forth a multitude of strategies to address the shortcomings of traditional TURBT. Appliances with large operating channel provide a platform for conducting laparoscopic procedures within the context of pneumocystoscopy, facilitating the execution of super TURBT and conferring comparable advantages to en-bloc resection. Moreover, the utilization of pneumocystoscopy enables the safe and effective performance of transurethral partial cystectomy for localized muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Novel techniques significantly improve the precision of the transurethral surgery and lower the risk of complications.

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References

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