Laparoscopic and Robotic-Assisted Extended Pelvic Lymph Node Dissection for Invasive Bladder Cancer: A Review

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Weijun Fu
Xu Zhang


Bladder cancer, Radical cystectomy, Laparoscopy, Robotics, Pelvic lymph node dissection


Minimally invasive surgical techniques, including laparoscopic and robotic-assisted radical cystectomy (RC), are emerging as the preferred treatment options for invasive bladder cancer. Mounting evidence has demonstrated that laparoscopic and robotic-assisted RC with extended pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) is a viable alternative for managing invasive bladder cancer. In this review, we summarized recent advances and critically assessed the minimally invasive approaches and risk factors associated with extended PLND in patients undergoing laparoscopic or robotic-assisted RC. The findings indicated that laparoscopic and robotic-assisted PLND, employing either a standard or extended approach, is technically feasible and offers benefits such as minimal invasiveness, superior visualization, reduced blood loss, and expedited recovery. The risk factors involved in the laparoscopic extended PLND are minimal. Clinically, laparoscopic and robotic-assisted extended PLND is significantly advantageous in that it sticks to the principles of open surgery and respects anatomical boundaries. Nevertheless, laparoscopic and robotic-assisted extended PLND is technically challenging and necessitate extended operation time. Furthermore, large-scale, prospective, multicenter trials are warranted to validate the long-term efficacy of laparoscopic and robotic-assisted extended PLND in terms of disease-specific survival.


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